A rite of passage is a ceremony or ritual of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another. It involves a significant change of status in society. In cultural anthropology the term is the Anglicisation of rite de passage , a French term innovated by the ethnographer Arnold van Gennep in his work Les rites de passage , "The Rites of Passage". In English, Van Gennep's first sentence of his first chapter begins: . In addition, all these groups break down into still smaller societies in subgroups.
The population of a society belongs to multiple groups, some more important to the individual than others. Van Gennep uses the metaphor, "as a kind of house divided into rooms and corridors. Van Gennep further distinguishes between "the secular" and "the sacred sphere. Passage between these groups requires a ceremony , or ritual hence rite of passage. The rest of Van Gennep's book presents a description of rites of passage and an organization into types, although in the end he despairs of ever capturing them all:  "It is but a rough sketch of an immense picture He refuses credit for being the first to recognize type of rites.
In the work he concentrates on groups and rites individuals might normally encounter progressively: pregnancy, childbirth, initiation, betrothal, marriage, funerals and the like. He mentions some others, such as the territorial passage, a crossing of borders into a culturally different region, such as one where a different religion prevails. Rites of passage have three phases: separation, liminality, and incorporation, as van Gennep described.
In the first phase, people withdraw from their current status and prepare to move from one place or status to another. For example, the cutting of the hair for a person who has just joined the army. He or she is "cutting away" the former self: the civilian. The transition liminal phase is the period between states, during which one has left one place or state but has not yet entered or joined the next. In the third phase reaggregation or incorporation the passage is consummated [by] the ritual subject.
Re-incorporation is characterized by elaborate rituals and ceremonies, like debutant balls and college graduation, and by outward symbols of new ties: thus "in rites of incorporation there is widespread use of the 'sacred bond', the 'sacred cord', the knot, and of analogous forms such as the belt, the ring, the bracelet and the crown.
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Laboratory experiments have shown that severe initiations produce cognitive dissonance. Initiation rites are seen as fundamental to human growth and development as well as socialization in many African communities. Bengu thinks the personal experiences of cast and crew added great depth and meaning to the film. This kind of storytelling is about collaborating in the exploration of a sensitive topic. It is not a fairytale. Apart from expanding the understanding of different expressions of sexuality, the filmmakers are driven by the need for African stories to be told by African people of all races and genders.
Director John Trengove is a white man who has taken much criticism for daring to tell a story about Xhosa men. Bengu is impatient with this short-sightedness. Although African stories and characters have sometimes been misrepresented when relayed through a filter of Western culture, he thinks the emotional centre of Inxeba resonates with all people. What are these stories that we're supposed to tell and how do we tell them when they make people angry?
Cultural activist and founder of the Kara Heritage Institute Mathole Motshekga is of the opinion that people who have not been to initiation should not see what happens at initiation, saying that we as Africans cannot tell our stories to the world until we as Africans understand our own stories. The traditions are secret for a reason. We can't tell the secrets to people who are unappreciative of them.go to link
Ritual - Wikipedia
Bengu does not dispute that African people should tell Africa's stories, but feels it is unrealistic to exclude non-African involvement. It is difficult to make a South African film without foreign funding, and why should we not share our stories with the world? Motshekga disagrees: "The new generation needs to learn about their own stories so that they can narrate how they want to tell their stories. Our traditions must first be learnt by African children before we mix our cultures with modern-day challenges faced by young people. National Public Radio. University of California Press.
Cultural Encyclopedia of the Body. Textile Research Centre. Major China Chic: East Meets West. Yale University Press. The Art of the Shoe. Parkstone Press Ltd. Women and the Family in Chinese History.
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Confucianism and Women: A Philosophical Interpretation. SUNY Press. Aching for Beauty: Footbinding in China. University of Minnesota Press.
Till A. Footbinding and Women's Labor in Sichuan. Archived from the original on 28 September Retrieved 29 January Carroll Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. Wall Street Journal. University of Washington Press.
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Praeger Publishers. Bonnie G. Smith ed. Edwards Southeast Review of Asian Studies. Archived from the original PDF on 18 April Palmer 15 April The Religious Question in Modern China. University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 31 July New York: Prometheus Books. American Doctors in Canton: Modernization in China, — Transaction Publishers. Shemo Lehigh University Press. Chinese Women in Christian Ministry. Peter Lang Publishing Inc. July 15, The New York Times. Retrieved Science and Football III.
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The traditional Chinese practice of foot binding was widespread in Taiwan's early years. Traditional Chinese society perceived women with smaller feet as being more beautiful. Women would bind their feet with long bandages to stunt growth. Even housemaids were divided into those with bound feet and those without.
The former served the daughters of the house, while the latter were assigned heavier work. This practice was later regarded as barbaric. In the early years of the Japanese colonial period, the Foot-binding Liberation Society was established to promote the idea of natural feet, but its influence was limited. The fact that women suffered higher casualties in the Meishan quake with men and women dead, and 1, men and 1, women injured--very different from the situation in Japan--raised public concern. Foot binding was blamed and this gave impetus to the drive to stamp out the practice.
Kit Gillet. Los Angeles Times. April University of Virginia. Ko, Alice. The Guardian. World History 7th Revised ed. Wadsworth Publishing Co Inc. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Chinese Culture , Routledge , p. Retrieved January 1, Central Asia and the Caucasus: transnationalism and diaspora. Psychology Press. Retrieved June 28, Ten Speed Press. Encyclopedia of Body Adornment. Greenwood Press. American Journal of Public Health. Oral Tradition.
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