THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA


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For all men on account of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more. Philostorgius , another Christian historian, who was also a contemporary of Hypatia, states that she excelled her father in mathematics [46] and the lexicographer Hesychius of Alexandria records that, like her father, she was also an extraordinarily talented astronomer. From — , the bishop of Alexandria was Theophilus. Theophilus died unexpectedly in In , Cyril closed all the synagogues in Alexandria, confiscated all the property belonging to the Jews, and expelled all the Jews from the city.

Despite Hypatia's popularity, Cyril and his allies attempted to discredit her and undermine her reputation. And in those days there appeared in Alexandria a female philosopher, a pagan named Hypatia, and she was devoted at all times to magic, astrolabes and instruments of music, and she beguiled many people through her Satanic wiles.

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And the governor of the city honoured her exceedingly; for she had beguiled him through her magic. And he ceased attending church as had been his custom And he not only did this, but he drew many believers to her, and he himself received the unbelievers at his house. According to Socrates Scholasticus, during the Christian season of Lent in March , a mob of Christians under the leadership of a lector named Peter, raided Hypatia's carriage as she was travelling home.

Socrates Scholasticus presents Hypatia's murder as entirely politically motivated [] and makes no mention of any role that Hypatia's paganism might have played in her death. For as she had frequent interviews with Orestes, it was calumniously reported among the Christian populace that it was she who prevented Orestes from being reconciled to the bishop. The Canadian mathematician Ari Belenkiy has argued that Hypatia may have been involved in a controversy over the date of the Christian holiday of Easter and that she was killed on the vernal equinox while making astronomical observations.

Watts both dismiss this hypothesis, noting that there is absolutely no evidence in any ancient text to support any part of the hypothesis. Hypatia's death sent shockwaves throughout the empire; [] [40] for centuries, philosophers had been seen as effectively untouchable during the displays of public violence that sometimes occurred in Roman cities [] and the murder of a female philosopher at the hand of a mob was seen as "profoundly dangerous and destabilizing".


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The investigation resulted in the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II issuing an edict in autumn of , which attempted to remove the parabalani from Cyril's power and instead place them under the authority of Orestes. Hypatia has been described as a universal genius , [] but she was probably more of a teacher and commentator than an innovator. Hypatia wrote a commentary on Diophantus 's thirteen-volume Arithmetica , which had been written sometime around the year AD. Cameron states that the most likely source of the additional material is Hypatia herself, [19] since Hypatia is the only ancient writer known to have written a commentary on the Arithmetica [19] and the additions appear to follow the same methods used by her father Theon.

The consensus that Hypatia's commentary is the source of the additional material in the Arabic manuscripts of the Arithmetica has been challenged by Wilbur Knorr , a historian of mathematics, [19] who argues that the interpolations are "of such low level as not to require any real mathematical insight" and that the author of the interpolations can only have been "an essentially trivial mind Hypatia also wrote a commentary on Apollonius of Perga 's work on conic sections , [34] [] [] but this commentary is no longer extant.

One of Synesius's letters describes Hypatia as having taught him how to construct a silver plane astrolabe as a gift for an official. The statement from Synesius's letter has sometimes been wrongly interpreted to mean that Hypatia invented the plane astrolabe herself, [37] [] but the plane astrolabe is known to have been in use at least years before Hypatia was born.

In another letter, Synesius requests Hypatia to construct him a "hydroscope", a device now known as a hydrometer , to determine the density or specific gravity of liquids. This reputation is either built on myth or hearsay as opposed to evidence. Either that or we are missing all of the evidence that would support it. Hypatia was not the last pagan, nor was she the last Neoplatonist philosopher. According to Watts, however, Hypatia had no appointed successor, no spouse, and no offspring [] [] and her sudden death not only left her legacy unprotected, but also triggered a backlash against her entire ideology.

Shortly after Hypatia's murder, a forged anti-Christian letter appeared under her name. Hypatia's death was similar to those of Christian martyrs in Alexandria, who had been dragged through the streets during the Decian persecution in The Byzantine Suda encyclopedia contains a very long entry about Hypatia, which summarizes two different accounts of her life. The Byzantine intellectual Photios c. The early eighteenth-century Deist scholar John Toland used the murder of Hypatia as the basis for the anti-Catholic tract, Hypatia: Or the History of a most beautiful, most vertuous, most learned, and every way accomplish'd Lady; who was torn to pieces by the Clergy of Alexandria, to gratify the pride, emulation, and cruelty of their Archbishop, commonly, but undeservedly, stiled St.

Voltaire , in his Examen important de Milord Bolingbroke ou le tombeau de fanatisme interpreted Hypatia as a believer in "the laws of rational Nature" and "the capacities of the human mind free of dogmas " [] [] and described her death as "a bestial murder perpetrated by Cyril's tonsured hounds, with a fanatical gang at their heels". In his monumental work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire , the English historian Edward Gibbon expanded on Toland and Voltaire's misleading portrayals by declaring Cyril as the sole cause of all evil in Alexandria at the beginning of the fifth century [] and construing Hypatia's murder as evidence to support his polemical thesis that the rise of Christianity was the sole cause of the Roman Empire's decline.

In nineteenth century European literary authors spun the legend of Hypatia as part of neo-Hellenism , a movement that romanticised ancient Greeks and their values. In his Hypatie and Hypathie et Cyrille , French poet Charles Leconte de Lisle portrayed Hypatia as the epitome of "vulnerable truth and beauty". Kingsley's novel was tremendously popular; [] [] it was translated into several European languages [] [] and remained continuously in print for the rest of the century. At the same time, European philosophers and scientists described Hypatia as the last representative of science and free inquiry before a "long medieval decline".

Hypatia was honored as an astronomer when Hypatia , a main belt asteroid discovered in , was named for her. The lunar crater Hypatia was also named for her, in addition to craters named for her father Theon. Around the same time, Hypatia was adopted by feminists [] and her life and death began to be viewed in the light of the women's rights movement. Such will probably be the fate of this book. For example, Kathleen Wider proposes that the murder of Hypatia marked the end of Classical antiquity , [] and Stephen Greenblatt observes that her murder "effectively marked the downfall of Alexandrian intellectual life".

Widespread falsehoods and misconceptions about Hypatia continued to proliferate throughout the late twentieth century. Osen relied on it as her main source in her influential biographical article about Hypatia in her book Women in Mathematics , published by the MIT Press in Apelles was probably the most important Greek painter born about BC in Colophon.

He studied at Ephesus and spent 12 years at Sikyon. He worked for Alexander the Great and his father Philip. None of his works survived! Apelles used to show his pictures to the public listening to comments. Click OK to close the Internet Options popup.

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Hypatia of Alexandria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA
THREE SCIENTISTS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: ANAXAGORAS, ARCHIMEDES, HYPATIA

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