The executive powers which may be exercised separately by the President and Vice-President include: designation and termination of appointment of Greek and Turkish Ministers respectively; the right of final veto on Council decisions and on laws concerning foreign affairs, defence or security; the publication of the communal laws and decisions of the Greek and Turkish Communal Chambers respectively; the right of recourse to the Supreme Constitutional Court; the prerogative of mercy in capital cases; and addressing messages to the House of Representatives.
The legislative power of the Republic shall be exercised by the House of Representatives in all matters except those expressly reserved to the Communal Chambers. The number of Representatives shall be 50, subject to alteration by a re- solution of the House of Representatives carried by a majority comprising two-thirds of the Representatives elected by the Greek Community and two- thirds of the Representatives elected by the Turkish Community.
The President of the House of Representatives shall be a Greek, and shall be elected by the Representatives elected by the Greek Community; and the Vice-President shall be a Turk and shall be elected by the Representatives elected by the Turkish Community. The Greek and Turkish Communities respectively shall elect from amongst their own members a Communal Chamber. The Communal Chambers shall, in relation to their respective Community, have competence to exercise legislative power solely with regard to the following:.
The security forces of the Republic shall consist of the police and gendarmerie and shall have a contingent of 2, men. The President and The Vice-President Executive power is vested in the President and the Vice-President, who are members of the Greek and Turkish Communities respectively, and are elected by their respective communities to hold office for five years. The executive power exercised by the President and the Vice-President of the Republic conjointly consists of: determining the design and colour of the flag; creation or establishment of honours; appointment of the members of the Council of Ministers; promulgation by publication of the decisions of the Council of Ministers; promulgation or publication of any law or decision passed by the House of Representatives; appointments and termination of appointments as in Articles provided; g institution of compulsory military service; reduction or increase of the security forces; exercise of the prerogative of mercy in capital cases; remission, suspension, and commutation of sentences; right of references to the Supreme Constitutional Court and Publication of the Court Decisions; and address of messages to the House of Representatives.
The Council of Ministers The Council of Ministers shall exercise executive power in all matters, other than those which are within the competence of a Communal Chamber, including the following: general direction and control of the government of the Republic, and the general direction of general policy; foreign affairs, defence and security; foreign affairs, defence, and security; co-ordination and supervision of all public services; supervision and disposition of property belonging to the Republic; consideration of Bills to be introduced to the House of Representatives by a Minister; making of any order or regulation for carrying into effect of any law as provided by such law; and consideration of the Budget of the Republic to be introduced to the House of Representatives.
The House of Representatives The legislative power of the Republic shall be exercised by the House of Representatives in all matters except those expressly reserved to the Communal Chambers. Ports and harbors: area under government control: Larnaca, Limassol, Vasilikos; area administered by Turkish Cypriots: Famagusta, Kyrenia. Airports: 15 International disputes: hostilities in divided the island into two de facto autonomous entities, the internationally recognized Cypriot Government and a Turkish-Cypriot community north Cyprus ; the 1,strong UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus UNFICYP has served in Cyprus since and maintains the buffer zone between north and south; on 1 May , Cyprus entered the European Union still divided, with the EU's body of legislation and standards acquis communitaire suspended in the north; Turkey protests Cypriot Government creating hydrocarbon blocks and maritime boundary with Lebanon in March Major sources and definitions.
The third-largest island in the Mediterranean one and one-half times the size of Delaware , Cyprus lies off the southern coast of Turkey and the western shore of Syria. The highest peak is Mount Olympus at 6, ft 1, m. Mediation efforts by the UN seek to reunify the Greek and Turkish areas of the island under one federated system of government. Cyprus was the site of early Phoenician and Greek colonies. For centuries its rule passed through many hands.
It fell to the Turks in , and a large Turkish colony settled on the island. It was declared a Crown colony in The Greek population, which regarded Greece as its mother country, sought self-determination and union enosis with Greece. In , Greek Cypriot nationalist leader Archbishop Makarios began calling for Cypriot independence rather than union with Greece. During this period, Turkish Cypriots began demanding that the island be partitioned between the Greek and Turkish populations. Cyprus became an independent nation on Aug. Makarios became the country's first president.
Fighting between Greek and Turkish Cypriots flared up in the early s, and a UN peacekeeping force was sent to the island in A UN-sponsored cease-fire was established on July 22, and Turkish troops were permitted to remain in the north. In Dec. The following year, the island was partitioned into Greek and Turkish territories separated by a UN-occupied buffer zone. Turkish Cypriots proclaimed a separate state under Rauf Denktash in the northern part of the island on Nov. No country except Turkey has recognized this entity.
In , George Vassiliou, a conservative and critic of UN proposals to reunify Cyprus, became president. The purchase of missiles capable of reaching the Turkish coast evoked threats of retaliation from Turkey in , and Cyprus's plans to deploy more missiles in Aug.
Facts & Figures
The continued strife between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots threatened Cyprus's potential EU membership—it had met all the economic standards—and provided a great incentive to both sides to resolve their differences. UN-sponsored talks between the Greek and Turkish leaders, Kleridas and Denktash, continued intensively in , but without resolution. Turkey is predominantly Turkish Turkish speaking with a Kurdish minority.
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The parallel is valid for one simple reason. Turkey is involved in both cases, in the first as the protector of the minority and in the second as the protector of the majority. Turkey's approach and understanding in issues such as equality between the communities, their representation in state positions, communities' security concerns, etc. And it is a fact, that in Turkey's rhetoric and logic vis-a-vis Kurdish Turks and Turkish Cypriots there is an undisputable blatant fallacy! Great Britain has a huge role to play as a guarantor power in the case of Cyprus and a longtime friend of the Turkish people.
A true friend, one I hope the UK will be to Turkey in its times of trouble, is one who will point out the blatant fallacy and propose realistic solutions. My prediction is that British pressure to have a settlement on Cyprus before Mr Talat, leader of the Turkish Cypriots and the Turkish illegal settlers, is ousted via the vote of illegal non-Cypriots Anatolian settlers in will bear no fruit. If the Turks cannot see it coming, then the British should, given that the instructions Mr Talat will receive from the mother country cannot be expected not to be nationalistic, thus in direct collision with justice as per the international community's interpretation via related UN resolutions and ECHR decisions.
Turkey failing to comprehend the dire situatiion it finds itself in will mean that soon it will be not just Economist bloggers such as myself suggesting "Turkish" solutions to Turkey's Kurdish problem. Let me offer you another solution. It was actually first proposed in Turkey was not ready back then to accept it. The constitutional structure of the Republic of Cyprus which resulted from the Zurich and London Agreements suffered from fundamental defects which impeded the smooth functioning of the State.
The fact that the Constitution did not emanate from the free will of the Cyprus people but was imposed upon them by virtue of the agreements was at the origin of feelings of discontent among Cypriots. Moreover many of the constitutional provisions conflicted with international law e. Other provisions promoting communal segregation prevented the smooth functioning and development of the country and created permanent sources of friction between Greek and Turkish Cypriots.
The ratio of participation in the public service attaining 30 per cent for the Turkish Cypriot community which represented 18 per cent of the population constituted one of the causes of discontent for Greek Cypriots as it offended the international accepted principle of the right of everyone of equal access to the public service of his country.
The constitutional provision relating to separate majorities for the enactment of certain laws in the House of Representatives was another source of serious problems affecting the smooth functioning of the state which was left without any taxation legislation for several months. Another element that created problems was the right of final veto accorded to the President and the Vice-President of the Republic against any law or decision both in the House of Representatives and the Council of Ministers.
Faced with this complex situation, the President of the Republic Archbishop Makarios III, by his letter of 30 November to the Vice President, suggested a series of measures to facilitate the smooth functioning of the State and remove certain causes of inter-communal friction. In his proposed amendments, President Makarios attempted to abolish the dividing elements of the Constitutions that kept Greek and Turkish Cypriots apart, fostering conflict and intolerance and replace them with provisions that would promote the wellbeing of the people of Cyprus as a whole.
The thirteen points set forth by President Makarios in his letter provided, inter alia, for the abolishment of the President's and Vice President's right of veto Point 1 , and for the election of both the Greek President of the House of Representatives and its Turkish Vice-President by the House as a whole and not by separate majorities Point 3. They also provided for the establishment of unified municipalities and for the unification of the administration of justice Point 6.
Other points were the following, The numerical strength of the Security Forces and of the Defence Forces should be determined by a Law Point 9 , and, The proportion of Greek and Turkish Cypriots in the composition of the Public Service should be modified in proportion to the ratio of the population of Greek and Turkish Cypriots Point The Turkish Government immediately rejected the proposals before the Turkish Cypriot community had commented on them.
I have the intention to respond to all your comments. However, as I must earn a living as well in between writing these posts I will need the day. I hate to disappoint certain bloggers who have suggested I may be on some government's or lobby's payroll. First, let us all who care, truly care for Cyprus, take the time to watch the hearing at the ECHR of the Demopoulos v. The arguments of both sides are explained well.
Second, no, I have not been to Keryneia or Ammochostos, or Morfou. My family's house is there whose title we have in our hands. We cannot bring ourselves to ask permission from an illegal army to cross the pseudo-border in order to visit. A house in which some I am sure decent Turkish family now lives in, a house, our own, where we will be welcome as guests. I do not expect you or anyone to understand this. Occupied Cyprus becoming part of Turkey, as you call it, is a necessary step before its liberation. If the Soviet Union could collapse, for sure Ataturkian Turkey will too.
In the mean time, I will be happy, if given an address, to send expensive Cuban cigars to all the Turkish generals in Turkey for the little time they have left to enjoy the spoils. Read the document please. Does it seem it was written by a person who sends out terrorists to kill? Print Makarios' 13 points. Save the document somewhere. It will prove an invaluable source for good ideas in dealing with the Kurdish problem. Good luck by the way! It is true the guarantor powers in Cyprus had the right to take joint action to restore the status quo. Action did not mean military action necessarily.
Turkey, however, acted unilaterally and the end result was hardly what the constitution prescribed. Great Britain did not see any threat to the Turkish Cypriots and declined to participate. The then Turkish Cypriot leader described the coup as a strictly Greek affair unrelated to his community. Perhaps these facts explain the article's reference to the illegality of the invasion and continued illegal occupation.
However, as sticking the head in the sand seems to be a favorite pastime in Anatolia, let me not deprive you of this beloved activity.
As far as the "year long genocide" comment, it simply serves as proof of the propaganda Turkish nationals are subjected to. Unfortunate, but true. His, and the Cyprus' Republic's biggest mistake, was that he did not choose to get rid of the cassock priest's robe after elected to the Presidency. If I were a member of a Christian minority I would certainly not have been receptive to the messages of a mullah molla? Let Makarios' wisdom guide the Cypriots, and those foreigners dealing with the problem, but also the Kurds and Turks as they try to solve a similar problem in the Turkish Republic.
Banning parties is certainly not the right way to do it. You wrote ""Funny that Cypriot nationalist ire is little directed towards this facet of colonial imperialism, despite the EU and certain 'maverick' Cypriot MEPs. Think hard, could it be that it is exactly because of the British bases of Cyprus that Turkey is having such a hard time "annexing" part of an island?
The Cyprus chess game is almost over. And Turkey lost, if you are honestly to look a couple of moves ahead. I am interested to hear your views on the latest chapter of your Kurdish issue, yet another testimony of the application Turkey's Ataturkian democracy. It is sure developing a lot like Cyprus of the s.
Government & Politics - Cyprus Profile
The only thing missing is the outsider bully. I wonder what comes next. First point: I am happy to see that you follow the parliamentary deliberations of a truly democratic country, the Cyprus Republic. Second point: "South Cyprus" and "North Cyprus" exist only in the Turkish press and in Turkish generals' vivid imagination. As far as the rest of the world is concerned, there is the Cyprus Republic, period. The Cyprus Republic whose territory has been violated and an illegal pseudo-statelet was formed recognized only by the Turkish Republic.
Third point: In Cyprus, you are right, there are often dissenting opinions on matters ranging from the national issue to the environment. The Cyprus Republic, albeit small, has been a well functioning democracy for decades now. It would be unfair to compare differing democratic views in Cyprus with real conflicts in Turkey.
Related The Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus of 1960 in English
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